Scalable preparation of graphene from graphite ore via mechano-chemical ball milling

Nair, A S and Nallusamy, V and Jayasankar, K and Sreejakumari, S S (2021) Scalable preparation of graphene from graphite ore via mechano-chemical ball milling. Materials and Manufacturing Processes .

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Abstract

Mechanical exfoliation can generate graphene, but a consistent and scalable preparation of few-layer graphene (FLG) continues to be a challenge. We employed a mechanochemical milling technique to achieve maximum shear and frictional force by dual drive mode operation for preparation of FLG directly from beneficiated graphite ore. Low-grade graphite ore from Jharkhand, India, with a carbon content of 9%, was subjected to primary beneficiation by froth flotation technique using the naturally hydrophobic property of graphite as opposed to the associated impurities. The obtained graphite concentrates with an enriched carbon content above 90% after flotation was subjected to chemical treatment process including alkali roasting and acid leaching, which yielded an enriched graphite powder with fixed carbon of about 98.16%. A comparative study regarding the leaching efficiency was carried out between sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. The few-layered graphene was successfully prepared by mechanical milling of beneficiated graphite ore with oxalic acid at 20 hours with optimized critical speed. At various milling hours, the amplitude of the peak (002) decreased continuously, suggesting that the graphite size and thickness had decreased. Raman Spectroscopy confirmed the 20 h milled graphite is having single and few layered (<4 layers) graphene sheets.

Item Type:Article
Official URL/DOI:https://10.1080/10426914.2021.1945094
Uncontrolled Keywords:Graphite; beneficiation; flotation; collector; roasting; leaching; milling; exfoliation; graphene; flake graphite; beneficiation; purification; flotation
Divisions:Material Science and Technology
ID Code:8430
Deposited By:Dr Mita Tarafder
Deposited On:24 Nov 2021 12:29
Last Modified:24 Nov 2021 12:29
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