Bahadur, Aruna and Ravi Kumar, B and Kumar, A Seshu and Sarkar, G G and Rao, J S (2004) Development and comparison of residual stress measurement on welds by various methods. Materials Science and Technology, 20 (2). pp. 261-269.
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Residual stress constitutes an integral part of the total stress acting on any component in service. It is imperative to determine residual stress to estimate the life of critical engineering components, especially those that are welded. The stresses caused by non-uniform temperature distribution due to welding and the effect of these multiaxial stresses upon service performance are discussed. A controlled thermal severity test (CTS) was performed on mild steel plates bolted together, with anchor welds deposited on opposite sides. After cooling, bithermal and trithermal test welds were deposited one after the other. Varying welding stresses were deliberately introduced by using different thicknesses of both plates to change the thermal severity numbers (TSN). The main experimental technique used here to determine the magnitude and nature of residual stress is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was utilised to develop and standardise other techniques. The XRD method is based on the peak shift in the diffraction profile due to the presence of stress using a sin(2)psi method. The peak shift is determined by orienting the sample at different angles +/-psi to the incident X-ray beam. The semidestructive technique of hole drilling and use of a strain gauge was also employed to determine residual stress in CTS specimens. The magnitude, nature, and direction of principal stresses were determined by relieving stresses through incremental blind hole drilling and measuring strain values at each step. The surface displacements arising due to hole drilling can also be determined by laser holography. A sandwich holography technique was developed to avoid unwanted rigid body motions of samples due to hole drilling when relieving stresses. Stress values were obtained by measuring fringe displacement between two exposures of a sandwich hologram, due to hole drilling. Results on the change in residual stress values with TSN are discussed. The residual stress values determined by XRD and sandwich holography were found to be comparable, and stress values obtained by hole drilling/strain gauge measurement were higher than these values. The reasons are discussed.
|Official URL/DOI:||DOI: 10.1179/026708304225012332|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||welding; steels; residual stress measurement|
|Divisions:||Material Science and Technology|
|Deposited By:||Sahu A K|
|Deposited On:||26 Jul 2011 18:07|
|Last Modified:||13 Dec 2011 16:06|
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