Srikanth, S and Das, Swapan K and Sasikumar, C and Ravi Kumar, B (2007) Failure of evaporator tubes initiated by lamellar tearing during the commissioning of a waste heat recovery boiler. Engineering Failure Analysis, 14 (1). pp. 262-278.
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Successive failures of several new evaporator tubes during commissioning and trial run of a waste heat recovery boiler has been analyzed. The evaporator tubes are cold bent into U-shape and subsequently TIG welded to a 24-mm thick wear plate on either sides of the tube immediately adjacent to the bend. The failed samples showed stepped longitudinal cracks along the rolling direction and parallel to the weld fusion boundary at the fireside surface of the inner bend of the tube, prominently at the center of the bend. It was found that the failure of the evaporator tubes at the tube bends was initiated by lamellar tearing because of inherent defects in the material (segregation leading to banded structure), improper processing of material (inclusions with high aspect ratios along the rolling direction) and accelerated by high transverse shrinkage stresses over the entire bend portion of the tube introduced by the weld. The pre-existing fine cracks in the welded evaporator tube initiated by lamellar tearing have subsequently opened up during service when the total strain in the region increased because of steam pressure resulting in catastrophic failure of the tubes. Contrary to expectation, many of the elongated inclusions were found to be iron oxide scales and only few were manganese sulfide stringers enveloped by iron oxide scales. The iron oxide inclusions were resolved from the manganese sulfide by scanning electron microscopy and EDS spot analysis of the inclusions.
|Lamellar tearing; Manganese sulfide stringers; Iron oxide scales
|26 Oct 2009 12:11
|30 Nov 2011 09:41
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