Iron making in ancient India - a critical assessment

Vaish, A K and Biswas, P K and Chaudhuri, S P and Humane, M M and Minj, R K and Lakra, B A and Sinhababu, S K and De, P K and Goswami, N G and Sivaramakrishnan, C S and Ramachandrarao, P (2002) Iron making in ancient India - a critical assessment. In: Traditional and innovation in the history of iron making: an Indo European perspective. PAHAR, Nainital, pp. 237-249. ISBN 81-86246-19-3

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It is a well known fact, that Indian craftsman produced quality iron products much earlier than the developed countries, making use of local reserves of iron ore. Iron produced in ancient India was mostly wrought iron. The metal was obtained in the form of a pasty mass and then shaped under hammer. Today, when India is producing several million tons of iron, primitive iron making is still exists in some parts of India. The primitive iron making furnaces declined in numbers gradually from about 500 in the beginning of 20'h century to about 150 by the middle of the century. Their present number is not known. Such furnaces are in operation deep into the forests and the tribal areas of India. The paper discusses briefly the history of iron making along with the critical assessment of the ancient processes. Some of the important measures absolutely. essential to upgrade the processes have also been discussed. Several pertinent modifications have been proposed in the design of these furnaces to make them more energy efficient and economically viable 'for tribal and rural populace.

Item Type:Book or NML Publication
Uncontrolled Keywords:Iron making; Iron making - India - Ancient
Divisions:Director Office
ID Code:1220
Deposited On:16 Jul 2010 13:14
Last Modified:06 Jan 2012 12:37

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