Upadhyay, A K and Gupta, K K and Sircar, J K and Deb, M K and Mundhara, G L (2007) Dominance of lithogenic effect for nickel, cobalt, chromium and mercury as found in freshly deposited sediments of the river Subernarekha, India. Environmental Geology, 51 (8). pp. 1447-1453.
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The importance of study of heavy metal distribution in river sediments is a component in understanding the exogenic cycling as well as in assessing the effect of anthropogenic influences of the elements. In India, the river Subernarekha flows over Precambrian terrain of Singhbhum craton in the eastern India. The geological succession in this part of India is through (1) iron ore series, (2) ultrabasic igneous rocks, (3) diorite, (4) granite, (5) newer dolerites, (6) newer tertiary and (7) alluvium. The first four groups belong to the Archaean era, and the representative is the iron ore series consisting of iron ore, manganese and chromite which are abundantly present. The primary rock types are schist and quartzite layers. One main tributary, the Kharkhai flow through granite and schist and quartzite layers. Two important creeks are Gurma and Garra, respectively. The former after originating in basic igneous area travels through schist quartzite, while the later one originates in granite area where some functional but old gold mines are located. Freshly deposited sediments of river were collected upstream and downstream the industrial zone (East Singhbhum district). Samples were collected from four locations and analysed in <63 μm sediment fraction for heavy metals like Ni, Co and Cr by adsorption stripping voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode and Hg by anodic stripping voltammetry using polished rotating gold disk electrode. Enrichment of these metals over and above the local natural concentration level (NCL) has been calculated and applied to determine metal-pollution index (MPI) proposed by Goncalves et al. and also geo-accumulation index (I geo) by Muller. Based on Muller’s classification, Ni, Cr and Hg have been classified from unpolluted to moderately polluted range in pre-monsoon period but for metals Ni and Cr, during the post-monsoon period the values have reached moderately polluted level while Hg has been classified under unpolluted to moderately polluted level except at the monitoring station situated upstream to Gurma Creek where it was found at unpolluted level. Presence of natural resources of the minerals is primarily the reason for their detection in river sediments (lithogenic) but some anthropogenic sources are also contributing for their presence at some sampling stations. Hg is considered to be chalcophilic in nature and is detected wherever known sulphidic ores of copper or nickel are present.
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Heavy metals - Metal pollution index - Muller’s index - Subernarekha river pollution (India)|
|Deposited By:||Dr. A K Sahu|
|Deposited On:||30 Sep 2009 17:19|
|Last Modified:||17 Feb 2012 16:57|
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